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Viperidae

Calloselasma rhodostoma cobra

Viperidae

Viperidae.site was created to disseminate accurate and quality information about the snakes of the viperidae family. Reproduction, feeding of more than 2000 snakes and vipers in the world. You can find the best accessories for snakes in the snake accessories section!

VIPERIDAE SNAKE FAMILY: WHAT DO YOU NEED TO KNOW?

Intro Few know that the most poisonous snakes belong to the Viperidae family, since rattlesnakes and other poisonous species are classified in it. Learn more about this species, which are considered endangered snakes. Names like Bothriechis schlegelii or Crotalus culminatus are part of this fascinating family. Read on and learn much more about these exotic snakes.

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VIPERIDAE SNAKES

The snakes belonging to the Viperidae family have a wide and somewhat triangular head, they are usually robust and have a rather short body. They are usually morning habits and until the sun begins to set, they are not arboreal and it is often said that they are excavators. The most impressive thing about its taxonomic evolution is that its inoculating apparatus has been adapted in such a way that it is the most developed of all snakes, in fact, the most complex.

Snakes characteristics

Their fangs (curved, long and hollow) act as a kind of hypodermic needles that are attached to a mobile jawbone and this structure allows them to inject venom into their prey without the need to bite them. Viperidae are poisonous snakes that can fold or rise vertically in front of their prey and sometimes secrete venom from a distance, causing permanent injury to anyone exposed to it.

The most surprising thing is that the Viperidae are able to control the amount of venom that they will inoculate their victims, they do a kind of study to inject the right venom that will first paralyze their prey and then cause it to die. However, despite being so aggressive, they can only deliver a warning bite: they do not inject poison, but threaten to do so.

SUBFAMILIES OF THE VIPERIDAE, THE KNOWN SPECIES

Snakes belonging to the Viperidae family are subdivided into three subfamilies: Viperinae (Atheris, Causus, Bitis, Cerastes, Daboia, Echis, Eristicophis, Macrovipera, Montatheris, Montivipera, Proatheris, Pseudocerastes and Vipera), Azemiopinae (Azemiopinae) and Crkistrinaepsinae (Azemiopinae) , Atropoides, Bothriechis, Bothrocophias, Bothrops, Calloselasma, Cerrophidion, Crotalus, Deinagkistrodon, Garthius, Gloydius, Hypnale, Lachesis, Mixcoatlus, Ophryacus, Ovophis, Porthidium, Protobothrops, Sisemtrurus, Trimelaresus).

These three subfamilies are known that are made up of different types of poisonous snakes and have been annexed over the years depending on the taxonomic changes suffered over time due to their adaptation to climatic changes and even their own reproduction. So far there are 329 recognized species within the genus Viperidae.

VIPERIDAE SNAKES: TYPE OF REPRODUCTION AND FEEDING

Viperidae are mostly ovoviparous, that is, they give birth to their young within their own bodies. They usually live in Europe, Asia, Africa and the American continent. There are specimens in Japan and the Philippines, but they are not common. Viperidae snakes in Colombia are among the best known in America, as are those endemic to Mexico, especially the Crotalinae.

They usually feed on small invertebrates, but larger Viperidae can feed on mammals, rodents, birds, and certain reptiles. If they look for bigger victims, they do so by violent attacks and by surprise. They do not usually attack humans unless they feel too threatened. Almost all Viperid snakes feed only 8 times in a year, so they remain in a state of hibernation the rest of the time.

CROTALINAE: THE SNAKES OF MEXICO
snakes of mexico

In Mexico, only the Crotalinae are found, in which the rattlesnake stands out, in addition to the nauyacas and the cliffs. This type of snake, in addition to the venom inoculating fangs, has a pair of loreal or thermoreceptor pits that are located between the eye and the nostrils, which helps them to receive the heat emitted by a possible prey, in this way always they are alert and know the exact moment in which they must attack. This thermal reception makes them dangerous enough for the rest of the animals, since the potential prey cannot control the heat they emit, which makes them an easy target.

Crotalinae are medium-sized snakes (approximately 80 centimeters, although some specimens can reach 120 centimeters) and of varied colors, there may be white snakes or yellow snakes. Those belonging to the genus

Crotalus have an essential main characteristic and it is the presence of a rattlesnake, that is, a rattlesnake at the end of the tail, which is why rattlesnakes are among the most dangerous.

 

THE LETHAL POISON OF THE VIPERIDAE

Viperid venom can be said to be made up of many peptide and protein molecules, as well as 100 different protein components, which is why it is classified as a fairly complex venom. Few protein families have been identified:

The metalloproteases of enzymatic activity. They need divalent metals like zinc to react. For those who have been subjected to poisoning, they may suffer from severe bleeding
Serinoproteases. They are enzymes with various effects, but mainly they make the blood clot
Type A2 phospholipases. They digest glycerophospholipids and are capable of destroying erythrocytes and interfering with blood clotting.

The fact that this group of protein families are found in abundant quantities in the venom of the viperids, makes the symptoms of those exposed to the venom much more intensified, especially if the correct antidote is not found or provided in a timely manner. It is very important to determine what type of viper was the cause of the bite to be treated in time.

Viperidae Lower classification

This is the lowest classification of the viperidae family:

June 26, 2020

Crotalinae

The crotalinos or crotalinos (Crotalinae) are a subfamily of poisonous snakes made up of several genera spread mainly throughout America, with some species in Asia.
Read more

June 26, 2020

Viperinae

The viperins, vipers or asps (Viperinae) are a subfamily of snakes, which
Read more

June 26, 2020

Azemiopinae

Azemiopinae is a genus of snakes in the Viperidae family. Its species are distributed in the south
Read more

Types of Viperidae

In this list you can find the main races and types of Vipers of the Viperidae family. Click on the bird’s name or photo for more information.

Azemiops

Viperinae

Crotalinae

Atheris

Causus

Bitis

Cerastes

Daboia

Echis

Eristicophis

Macrovipera

Montatheris

Montivipera

Proatheris

Pseudocerastes
Vipera

Agkistrodon

Atropoids

Bothriechis

Bothrocophias

Bothrops

Calloselasm

Cerrophidion

Crotalus

Deinagkistrodon

Garthius

Gloydius
VIPERIDAE
Viperidae
Hypnale

Lachesis

Mixcoatlus

Ophryacus

Ovophis

Porthidium

Protobothrops

Sistrurus

Trimeresurus

Tropidolaemus

Images of Snakes and Vipers
Welcome to the best list of photos of the most beautiful and strange snakes and vipers in the world!

Click on the image to see its information.

Classification of Viperidae by color
In this list we show you the tropical snakes organized according to color.

Green vipers
Atheris

Bothriechis

Causus

Red vipers
Bothrocophias
Viperidae
Viperidae
Atheris squamigera
Red boa

Yellow vipers
Atheris matildae
atheris matildae
Viperidae

Atheris acuminata

Atheris ceratophora

Blue Vipers
Macrovipera

Blue coral
poisonous blue snake
poisonous blue snake
Black vipers

The electric colors of the scales of these snakes usually combine yellow and black, as in the case of mangrove snakes, but also blue and red. And there are Viboras and snakes, like the rainbow boa that can have between three and six colors.

As in many other species in nature, males are more striking than females, since their color is one of the factors that make them choose “the best match” at mating season.

However, there are snakes in this classification that do not stand out for their colors.

TAXONOMY
Azemiopinae
Azemiops
Viperinae
Atheris
Causus
Bitis
Cerastes
Daboia
Echis
Eristicophis
Macrovipera
Montatheris
Montivipera
Proatheris
Pseudocerastes
Vipera
Crotalinae
Agkistrodon
Atropoids
Bothriechis
Bothrocophias
Bothrops
Calloselasm
Cerrophidion
Crotalus
Deinagkistrodon
Garthius
Gloydius
Hypnale
Lachesis
Mixcoatlus
Ophryacus
Ovophis
Porthidium
Protobothrops
Sistrurus
Trimeresurus
Tropidolaemus

Habitat
Among the countries that offer the most species of snakes to the world, those with tropical forests are the first, since they are the place of origin of a large number of these Vipers.

Atheris is found in the jungles of Guatemala, Mexico and Costa Rica, a country where we can also find more than forty species of Snakes.

But if we talk about the jungle, we cannot stop talking about Brazil, since it ranks third in terms of number of individuals in South America. And it is that it has the Amazon rainforest, where, for example, Pseudocerastes, a species that also lives in other areas of Central America and in the Caribbean islands.

A curious and endemic species of the place is the pseudocerastes urarachnoides.